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How to 3D Print a Robot: Step-by-Step Guide


Designing the outer body of a robot is a critical step in the development process. Not only does it contribute to the overall functionality and performance of the robot, but it also serves as the first point of contact between the robot and its users, making it essential to create a design that is visually appealing and engaging. The design of SARA’s outer body is 3D printed. This innovative technology offers numerous advantages, including customization and flexibility in creating complicated designs.

Designing the Robot Body

When it comes to designing the outer body of the SARA robot, careful consideration must be given to both functionality and aesthetics. The robot's body is split into two levels: the base and the body itself. The designing steps for each is as follows:


we focus on creating a sturdy and functional base. One crucial aspect is incorporating holes in the front side of the base to integrate four ultrasonic sensors. These sensors play a vital role in detecting obstacles and ensuring safe navigation for the robot. Additionally, we include a charging port at the back side of the robot to facilitate easy recharging.


we concentrate on designing the body of the robot. The front of the body features a screen that will display customized advertisements based on gender and age detection. To capture accurate data, a camera is positioned at the top of the screen. We also incorporate a touch switch for user interaction.

To bring our design to life, we utilize 3D printing technology. The full robot body is divided into smaller pieces with maximum dimensions of 21 x 21 cm to fit into a standard 3D printer. This allows for greater flexibility in customization and ensures efficient manufacturing.

Step1: Preparing for 3D Printing

To ensure that each part of the robot can be printed separately and then assembled, it is crucial to split the full body into smaller pieces. This allows for easier printing and assembly, as well as providing flexibility in case any adjustments need to be made in the future. When splitting the robot body, consider dividing it into sections that fit within the maximum dimensions of your 3D printer.

Step2: Printing and Assembling the Parts

- Printing the 3D parts

Using suitable CAD software, load each part individually and prepare them for printing. Adjust settings such as infill density and layer height according to your preferences or recommendations from the manufacturer. Once ready, send each part to your 3D printer for fabrication.

While printing, ensure that you have enough filament material available for uninterrupted production. Depending on the size and complexity of your robot's design, this process may take several hours or even days. Patience is key during this stage as it sets the foundation for the robot's structure.

- Connecting the parts

After successfully printing all the necessary components, it's time to connect them together using screws and rivet nuts. These fasteners provide a secure and robust assembly that ensures durability while allowing for easy disassembly if needed in the future.

For added strength and stability, utilize rivet nuts in areas where extra reinforcement is required. Heat up each rivet nut using a specialized tool until it becomes malleable, then insert it into the printed part. Cool it down with water to solidify its position and create a strong connection.

Step3: Finishing Touches

After successfully 3D printing and assembling the robot's body, it's time to add the finishing touches that will give it a polished and refined look. This step involves performing sanding and applying paint to enhance both the functionality and aesthetics of the robot.

- Performing sanding

To ensure smooth surfaces on the 3D-printed parts, sanding is necessary. This process involves using sandpaper or sanding tools to remove any rough edges, imperfections, or visible layer lines left by the 3D printer. By gently sanding the surfaces, you can achieve a more professional finish.

- Applying paint

Once the sanding process is complete, it's time to apply paint to give the robot its final look. Before painting, it's important to clean any dust or debris from the sanded surfaces. This ensures that the paint adheres properly and provides a smooth finish. Choose a high-quality primer specifically designed for use on plastics or 3D-printed objects. Apply a thin coat of primer evenly across all surfaces of the robot body and allow it to dry completely.

Next, select your desired color scheme for the robot's exterior. Acrylic paints are commonly used due to their versatility and ease of application. Use a brush or spray gun to carefully apply multiple coats of paint, allowing each coat to dry before applying another layer. This will result in an even color distribution and a vibrant finish.

Finally, once all paint layers have dried thoroughly, consider adding a clear topcoat for added protection against scratches and wear. This will ensure that your robot's outer body remains intact and visually appealing for a longer period of time.


In conclusion, designing and 3D printing a robot provides a unique and customizable approach to creating functional and visually appealing robotic bodies. Throughout the design process, careful consideration should be given to the functionality and aesthetics of the robot's outer body. The base of the robot should incorporate necessary features such as holes for sensors and a charging port, while the body should house components like screens, cameras, and touch switches. To achieve a polished finish, sanding and painting are recommended. These final touches not only enhance the appearance of the robot but also contribute to its overall durability.

By following this step-by-step guide, DIY enthusiasts can unleash their creativity and bring their robotic ideas to life. Whether it's SARA or any other project, 3D printing opens up endless possibilities for designing innovative robots that cater to specific needs.

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